P2P Bitcoin Derivative Trading Through the Blockchain: Equities, Bonds, Forex & Commodities
Research & ideas to use [Veritaseum's UltraCoin](http://ultra-coin.com/) **user programmable Bitcoin swaps** to trade exposures to cryptos, forex, equities, bonds & commodities through 45,000+ global tickers & up to 10,000x price leverage - peer-to-peer. Veritaseum's UltraCoin is a software concern that holds no client funds and is not a financial entity, hence presents you with no counterparty or default risk. [Download the client & tutorials](http://ultra-coin.com/index.php/download-beta)
Welcome to IOTAmarkets! -- IOTA is a quantum-resistant distributed ledger protocol launched in 2015, focused on being useful for the emerging m2m economy of Internet-of-Things (IoT), data integrity, micro-/nano- payments, and anywhere else a scalable decentralized system is warranted. IOTA uniquely offers zero fees, no scaling limitations, and decentralized consensus where users are also validators. The digital currency 'iota' has a fixed money supply with zero inflationary cost.
People who think Bitcoin should be a "store of value" not a "money" need to read even the Wikipedia definition of "store of value"
TL;DR when people tell you they think Bitcoin should be a "store of value" you can reply, "I agree, and the best store of value is P2P cash!" What does it mean to be a "store of value?"
A store of value is the function of an asset that can be saved, retrieved and exchanged at a later time, and be predictably useful when retrieved. More generally, a store of value is anything that retains purchasing power into the future. The most common store of value in modern times has been money, currency, or a commodity like a precious metal or financial capital. The point of any store of value is risk management due to a stable demand for the underlying asset. Money is one of the best stores of value because of its liquidity, that is, it can easily be exchanged for other goods and services. An individual's wealth is the total of all stores of value including both monetary and nonmonetary assets.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Store_of_value Of course historically using "money" as a store of value has been problematic over the long term due to inflation, but that has been addressed.... The wiki makes the killer point here:
Money is one of the best stores of value because of its liquidity, that is, it can easily be exchanged for other goods and services.
Money makes the best "store of value." Why? Because it can easily be exchanged. Money. Cash. To be the best "store of value" -- you need to be "P2P Cash"
Early this month, traffic to Wikipedia's Bitcoin article was in the 20K visits-per-day range; then, on Oct 12, it jumped up to 45K and then 53K, and it has been averaging 40K/day in the 10 days since. The reason? The price changes: Oct 11: $4796, Oct 12: $5458, Oct 13: $5630 (Click "Show values")
Traffic to Wikipedia's Bitcoin article has jumped way up in the past 3 days (Oct 11 - Oct 13), from 31K visits to 45K to 53K! That's 129K visits in 3 days; it got only 88K in the 3 days before that. (Click "Show values")
25 November 2017 $9,000 Bitcoin surpasses the $9,000 mark for the first time. 28 November 2017 $10,000 Bitcoin surpasses $10,000 for the first time. 29 November 2017 $11,000 Bitcoin surpasses $11,000 for the first time. 5 December 2017 $12,000 Bitcoin surpasses $12,000 for the first time. 6 December 2017 $13,000 Bitcoin surpasses $13,000 for the first time. 7 December 2017 $14,000 Bitcoin surpasses $14,000 for the first time. 8 December 2017 $15,000 Bitcoin surpasses $15,000 for the first time.
Traffic to Wikipedia's Bitcoin article has jumped way up in the past 3 days (Oct 11 - Oct 13), from 31K visits to 45K to 53K! That's 129K visits in 3 days; it got only 88K in the 3 days before that. (Click "Show values")
Early this month, traffic to Wikipedia's Bitcoin article was in the 20K visits-per-day range; then, on Oct 12, it jumped up to 45K and then 53K, and it has been averaging 40K/day in the 10 days since. The reason? The price changes: Oct 11: $4796, Oct 12: $5458, Oct 13: $5630 (Click "Show values")
The chart on Wikipedia depicting the value fluctuations of Bitcoin seems very sketchy, as the scale is skewed to make the drops of the past few months look insignificant. Is this a case of Bitcoin boosters trying to be manipulative, or is it a common practice in economics? (links in comments)
Putting $400M of Bitcoin on your company balance sheet
Also posted on my blog as usual. Read it there if you can, there are footnotes and inlined plots. A couple of months ago, MicroStrategy (MSTR) had a spare $400M of cash which it decided to shift to Bitcoin (BTC). Today we'll discuss in excrutiating detail why this is not a good idea. When a company has a pile of spare money it doesn't know what to do with, it'll normally do buybacks or start paying dividends. That gives the money back to the shareholders, and from an economic perspective the money can get better invested in other more promising companies. If you have a huge pile of of cash, you probably should be doing other things than leave it in a bank account to gather dust. However, this statement from MicroStrategy CEO Michael Saylor exists to make it clear he's buying into BTC for all the wrong reasons:
“This is not a speculation, nor is it a hedge. This was a deliberate corporate strategy to adopt a bitcoin standard.”
Let's unpack it and jump into the economics Bitcoin:
Is Bitcoin money?
No. Or rather BTC doesn't act as money and there's no serious future path for BTC to become a form of money. Let's go back to basics. There are 3 main economic problems money solves: 1. Medium of Exchange. Before money we had to barter, which led to the double coincidence of wants problem. When everyone accepts the same money you can buy something from someone even if they don't like the stuff you own. As a medium of exchange, BTC is not good. There are significant transaction fees and transaction waiting times built-in to BTC and these worsen the more popular BTC get. You can test BTC's usefulness as a medium of exchange for yourself right now: try to order a pizza or to buy a random item with BTC. How many additional hurdles do you have to go through? How many fewer options do you have than if you used a regular currency? How much overhead (time, fees) is there? 2. Unit of Account. A unit of account is what you compare the value of objects against. We denominate BTC in terms of how many USD they're worth, so BTC is a unit of account presently. We can say it's because of lack of adoption, but really it's also because the market value of BTC is so volatile. If I buy a $1000 table today or in 2017, it's roughly a $1000 table. We can't say that a 0.4BTC table was a 0.4BTC table in 2017. We'll expand on this in the next point: 3. Store of Value. When you create economic value, you don't want to be forced to use up the value you created right away. For instance, if I fix your washing machine and you pay me in avocados, I'd be annoyed. I'd have to consume my payment before it becomes brown, squishy and disgusting. Avocado fruit is not good money because avocadoes loses value very fast. On the other hand, well-run currencies like the USD, GBP, CAD, EUR, etc. all lose their value at a low and most importantly fairly predictible rate. Let's look at the chart of the USD against BTC While the dollar loses value at a predictible rate, BTC is all over the place, which is bad. One important use money is to write loan contracts. Loans are great. They let people spend now against their future potential earnings, so they can buy houses or start businesses without first saving up for a decade. Loans are good for the economy. If you want to sign something that says "I owe you this much for that much time" then you need to be able to roughly predict the value of the debt in at the point in time where it's due. Otherwise you'll have a hard time pricing the risk of the loan effectively. This means that you need to charge higher interests. The risk of making a loan in BTC needs to be priced into the interest of a BTC-denominated loan, which means much higher interest rates. High interests on loans are bad, because buying houses and starting businesses are good things.
BTC has a fixed supply, so these problems are built in
Some people think that going back to a standard where our money was denominated by a stock of gold (the Gold Standard) would solve economic problems. This is nonsense. Having control over supply of your currency is a good thing, as long as it's well run. See here Remember that what is desirable is low variance in the value, not the value itself. When there are wild fluctuations in value, it's hard for money to do its job well. Since the 1970s, the USD has been a fiat money with no intrinsic value. This means we control the supply of money. Let's look at a classic poorly drawn econ101 graph The market price for USD is where supply meets demand. The problem with a currency based on an item whose supply is fixed is that the price will necessarily fluctuate in response to changes in demand. Imagine, if you will, that a pandemic strikes and that the demand for currency takes a sharp drop. The US imports less, people don't buy anything anymore, etc. If you can't print money, you get deflation, which is worsens everything. On the other hand, if you can make the money printers go brrrr you can stabilize the price Having your currency be based on a fixed supply isn't just bad because in/deflation is hard to control. It's also a national security risk... The story of the guy who crashed gold prices in North Africa In the 1200s, Mansa Munsa, the emperor of the Mali, was rich and a devout Muslim and wanted everyone to know it. So he embarked on a pilgrimage to make it rain all the way to Mecca. He in fact made it rain so hard he increased the overall supply of gold and unintentionally crashed gold prices in Cairo by 20%, wreaking an economic havoc in North Africa that lasted a decade. This story is fun, the larger point that having your inflation be at the mercy of foreign nations is an undesirable attribute in any currency. The US likes to call some countries currency manipulators, but this problem would be serious under a gold standard.
Currencies are based on trust
Since the USD is based on nothing except the US government's word, how can we trust USD not to be mismanaged? The answer is that you can probably trust the fed until political stooges get put in place. Currently, the US's central bank managing the USD, the Federal Reserve (the Fed for friends & family), has administrative authority. The fed can say "no" to dumb requests from the president. People who have no idea what the fed does like to chant "audit the fed", but the fed is already one of the best audited US federal entities. The transcripts of all their meetings are out in the open. As is their balance sheet, what they plan to do and why. If the US should audit anything it's the Department of Defense which operates without any accounting at all. It's easy to see when a central bank will go rogue: it's when political yes-men are elected to the board. For example, before printing themselves into hyperinflation, the Venezuelan president appointed a sociologist who publicly stated “Inflation does not exist in real life” and instead is a made up capitalist lie. Note what happened mere months after his gaining control over the Venezuelan currency This is a key policy. One paper I really like, Sargent (1984) "The end of 4 big inflations" states:
The essential measures that ended hyperinflation in each of Germany,Austria, Hungary, and Poland were, first, the creation of an independentcentral bank that was legally committed to refuse the government'sdemand or additional unsecured credit and, second, a simultaneousalteration in the fiscal policy regime.
In english: *hyperinflation stops when the central bank can say "no" to the government." The US Fed, like other well good central banks, is run by a bunch of nerds. When it prints money, even as aggressively as it has it does so for good reasons. You can see why they started printing on March 15th as the COVID lockdowns started:
The Federal Reserve is prepared to use its full range of tools to support the flow of credit to households and businesses and thereby promote its maximum employment and price stability goals.
In english: We're going to keep printing and lowering rates until jobs are back and inflation is under control. If we print until the sun is blotted out, we'll print in the shade.
BTC is not gold
Gold is a good asset for doomsday-preppers. If society crashes, gold will still have value. How do we know that? Gold has held value throughout multiple historic catastrophes over thousands of years. It had value before and after the Bronze Age Collapse, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and Gengis Khan being Gengis Khan. Even if you erased humanity and started over, the new humans would still find gold to be economically valuable. When Europeans d̶i̶s̶c̶o̶v̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ c̶o̶n̶q̶u̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ g̶e̶n̶o̶c̶i̶d̶e̶d̶ went to America, they found gold to be an important item over there too. This is about equivalent to finding humans on Alpha-Centauri and learning that they think gold is a good store of value as well. Some people are puzzled at this: we don't even use gold for much! But it has great properties: First, gold is hard to fake and impossible to manufacture. This makes it good to ascertain payment. Second, gold doesnt react to oxygen, so it doesn't rust or tarnish. So it keeps value over time unlike most other materials. Last, gold is pretty. This might sound frivolous, and you may not like it, but jewelry has actual value to humans. It's no coincidence if you look at a list of the wealthiest families, a large number of them trade in luxury goods. To paraphrase Veblen humans have a profound desire to signal social status, for the same reason peacocks have unwieldy tails. Gold is a great way to achieve that. On the other hand, BTC lacks all these attributes. Its value is largely based on common perception of value. There are a few fundamental drivers of demand:
Means of Exchange: if people seriously start using BTC to buy pizzas, then this creates a real demand for the currency to accomplish the short-term exchanges. As we saw previously, I'm not personally sold on this one and it's currently a negligible fraction of overall demand.
Criminal uses: Probably the largest inbuilt advantage of BTC is that it's anonymous, and so a great way to launder money. Hacker gangs use BTC to demand ransom on cryptolocker type attacks because it's a shared way for an honest company to pay and for the criminals to receive money without going to jail.
Apart from these, it's hard to argue that BTC will retain value throughout some sort of economic catastrophe.
BTC is really risky
One last statement from Michael Saylor I take offense to is this:
“We feel pretty confident that Bitcoin is less risky than holding cash, less risky than holding gold,” MicroStrategy CEO said in an interview
"BTC is less risky than holding cash or gold long term" is nonsense. We saw before that BTC is more volatile on face value, and that as long as the Fed isn't run by spider monkeys stacked in a trench coat, the inflation is likely to be within reasonable bounds. But on top of this, BTC has Abrupt downside risks that normal currencies don't. Let's imagine a few:
A critical software vulnerability is found in the BTC codebase, leading to a possible exploitation.
Xi Jinping decides he's had enough of rich people in China hiding their assets from him and bans BTC.
Some form of bank run takes hold for whatever reason. Because BTC wallets are uninsured, unlike regular banks, this compounds into a Black Tuesday style crash.
Blockchain solutions are fundamentally inefficient
Blockchain was a genius idea. I still marvel at the initial white paper which is a great mix of economics and computer science. That said, blockchain solutions make large tradeoffs in design because they assume almost no trust between parties. This leads to intentionally wasteful designs on a massive scale. The main problem is that all transactions have to be validated by expensive computational operations and double checked by multiple parties. This means waste:
BTC was estimated to use as much electricity as Belgium in 2019. It's hard to trace where the BTC mining comes from, but we can assume it has a huge carbon footprint.
A single transactions is necessarily expensive. A single transaction takes as much electricity as 800,000 VISA transactions, or watching 50,000 hours of youtube videos.
There is a large necessary tax on the transaction, since those checking the transaction extract a few BTC from it to be incentivized to do the work of checking it.
Many design problems can be mitigated by various improvements over BTC, but it remains that a simple database always works better than a blockchain if you can trust the parties to the transaction.
The chart on Wikipedia depicting the value fluctuations of Bitcoin seems very sketchy, as the scale is skewed to make the drops of the past few months look insignificant. Is this a case of Bitcoin boosters trying to be manipulative, or is it a common practice in economics? (links in comments)
PUNTO DE PARTIDA PARA NEWBIES EN INVERSIONES. POR DONDE ARRANCAR?
¿Para quién es este post?
Este post está pensado para los que tienen plata y no saben que hacer, los que como mucho hicieron plazos fijos o comprar dolar en home-banking o ir al blue. La idea es dar una breve introducción, que sea llevadera, no muy técnica y en términos sencillos, de que cosas hay que tener en cuenta ahora que se decidieron adentrarse en el mundo de las inversiones. Espero que después de leer esta introducción, les sirva para poner en contexto las preguntas que se tienen que hacer, la información que necesitan investigar y capacitarse, antes de efectivamente ponerse a invertir. Y de yapa por haber leído hasta acá, se llevan el primer consejo: no invertir sin tener bien claro en qué nos estamos metiendo! Antes de arrancar: no confundir inversiones bursátiles con finanzas personales. Las finanzas personales abarcan toda la gestión de ingresos, inversiones, ahorros y gastos en la "microeconomia" de una persona. Acá nos vamos a centrar solamente en la parte de inversiones, en el marco de las finanzas personales.
Primero unas definiciones básicas
Vamos a arrancar con algunos conceptos que pueden parecer medio abstractos sobre el temas de dinero, para después tener una base y poder ir directo a la cuestión de inversiones. Valor tiempo del dinero Lo primero que tenemos que entender es el valor tiempo del dinero, un concepto muy sencillo pero que pocos lo tienen formalizado. Por suerte, es muy fácil de incorporar y de aprender. Puesto de manera sencilla y sin entrar en muchos números: la misma cantidad de dinero vale mas HOY que mañana. Y cuanto mas tiempo pasa, menos vale el mismo dinero. Vale aclarar que no estoy teniendo en cuenta conceptos como devaluación o inflación en este momento, simplemente que el mismo dinero hoy, va a valer mas que mañana. Veamos este concepto con un ejemplo sencillo. Cómo ordenarias según orden de preferencia las siguientes opciones?
Recibir $100 hoy
Recibir $100 mañana
Recibir $100 en 1 mes
Creo que esta claro que el orden dado, es el orden de preferencia de cualquiera de nosotros. La cuestión se pone interesante cuando empezamos a jugar con el monto vs el tiempo. Por ejemplo:
Recibir $100 hoy
Recibir $200 mañana
Recibir $1000 en 12 meses
En este caso ya empiezan a jugar otras variables. Que tan valioso es para mi el dinero hoy vs el dinero en el futuro? En esta valuación entran en juego conceptos que no voy a explicar aca pero son muy interesantes de profundizar, como el concepto de NPV (Net present value o valor presente neto), IRR o TIR (Tasa Interna de Retorno) y tasa de descuento (Discount factor). Riesgo Hay muchas maneras de definir riesgo, pero en este contexto vamos a quedarnos con una definición mas estadística para que sea fácil de entender. El riesgo es una medida de que tanta certeza vamos a tener de nuestro retorno esperado. Por ejemplo, el concepto de una tasa libre de riesgo es un caso extremo: una inversion de rendimiento fijo y conocido de antemano, que, como el nombre lo implica, se considera que tiene no tiene riesgo. Esto se traduce en que el rendimiento esperado es igual al rendimiento efectivo (o realizado) que vamos a tener al final de la inversion. En el caso de inversiones globales, se considera a los bonos del tesoro de EEUU como libre de riesgo. En nuestro caso, podemos tomar a los plazos fijos de los bancos (o mas correctamente los instrumentos de renta fija del tesoro argentino). Una vez establecido el nivel base de riesgo 0, la escala de riesgo va variando a medida que consideramos distintos instrumentos, e incluso dentro de los instrumentos, hay varios atributos para analizar. Para intentar predecir la dispersión alrededor de nuestro retorno esperado, lo que se suele hacer es basarse en la volatilidad histórica del instrumento a analizar. Para dar algunos ejemplos, una acción de un banco Argentino tiene mas riesgo que una acción de un banco de EEUU. Esto se puede analizar coyunturalmente, o se puede mirar las variaciones históricas recientes de los precios. Otra manera de pensar el riesgo, es adoptar la postura de que el mercado es "eficiente" y que los retornos esperados ya reflejan los mayores riesgos. Es decir: a mayor retorno esperado, mayor riesgo. Esto quiere decir que hay menos probabilidad hay de conseguir ese retorno esperado. Dependiendo del instrumento, estos retornos esperados se pueden calcular facilmente como en instrumentos de renta fija (métricas como TIR, paridad, etc) o pueden ser mas difíciles de calcular como en renta variable, aunque tenemos distintos ratios (o múltiplos) que podemos analizar para comparar el precio de una acción con sus fundamentals (que se desprenden de los balances presentados). Creamos o no en la eficiencia del mercado para pricear (determinar el precio de algo) las cosas, es una buena heurística a tener en cuenta que retornos altos suelen estar acompañados de riesgo alto. El corolario de esto es siempre ser escépticos de retornos altos de bajo riesgo, promesas de "plata fácil" y ese tipo de oportunidades. Retorno real vs nominal Una aclaración que nos debemos es distinguir entre retornos reales y retornos nominales. Los retornos nominales son los retornos directos obtenidos sin ningún ajuste. Por ejemplo, invertimos $100 en una acción que en 5 años se convirtieron en $200. Eso nos da un retorno del 100%. Sin embargo, esos $200 probablemente tengan menor poder adquisitivo, ya sea por devaluación (midiendo contra otras monedas) o inflación (midiendo contra bienes). Por ejemplo, si sabemos que en esos 5 años la inflación fue del 50%, nuestro retorno real fue del %50 entonces. Es muy importante siempre medir nuestras inversiones teniendo en cuenta los retornos REALES. Particularmente en pesos, donde la perdida del poder adquisitivo es tan tangible. De hecho, mi recomendación es medir las inversiones en monedas mas estables como el dolar, por defecto. Como dato de color, la inflación del dolar es de aprox. 2% anual.
Receta básica para una inversion
Que componentes tiene una inversion? Estos son los ingredientes mínimos que la componen:
Capital: Monto de dinero para invertir
Retorno: Cual es el % o monto de ganancia sobre el capital que esperamos obtener. Puede ser aproximado.
Riesgo: Medida de que tan probable es que consigamos el retorno esperado. Difícil de estimar exactamente!
Horizonte/plazo: Cuanto tenemos que dejar la plata para maximizar las chances del retorno esperado
Instrumento: El método mediante el cual vamos a invertir
Liquidez: que tan rápido/costoso es entrasalir
Moneda: en que moneda podemos entrasalir de la inversion
Fricciones: gastos/comisiones/impuestos a tener en cuenta
Dados estos ingredientes, vemos que algunos son variables que podemos definir nosotros y otros son interdependientes. Veamos algunos ejemplos:
Si queremos obtener una ganancia de 100 pesos en un plazo fijo con tasa 1% mensual, el resto de las variables quedan prácticamente predefinidas: el riesgo es casi nulo, y por ende el retorno es conocido. El capital es función del retorno en este caso, tenemos que colocar 10k pesos. El horizonte es 1 mes. La liquidez es nula, no podemos retirar el dinero hasta que no termina nuestra inversion. Y la moneda es pesos. Prácticamente no hay gastos ni impuestos que nos importen.
Quiero invertir 10k USD y obtener una rentabilidad de 5% anual durante 2 años. En este caso, un instrumento adecuado para ese tipo de inversion podría ser un bono corporativo en USD. La moneda es en dolares y el hecho de tener un plazo de inversion corto con un rendimiento de 5% anual, nos fija que el riesgo que vamos a tener que correr va a ser moderado (si comparamos con la tasa libre de riesgo o con otros bonos que rinden similares tasas). La liquidez es baja porque los bonos corporativos no se negocian mucho, y el costo de salir antes puede ser moderado, dependiendo del instrumento en sí. Los gastos van a ser los de operar, comisiones al broker, hay que investigar los impuestos respecto a este instrumento.
Si mi objetivo es duplicar un capital de 25k pesos en un mes: para eso podemos utilizar opciones sobre acciones locales, intentando capturar la tendencia en algún papel que hayamos estudiado. Necesitamos conocer en profundidad el instrumento (en este caso opciones) y saber que estamos corriendo un riesgo alto, que vamos a pasar, con alta probabilidad, por periodos de grandes perdidas, incluso llegando a perder todo nuestro capital. La liquidez es alta, podemos salir cuando querramos, pero con alto costo, dada la importancia del timing. Las comisiones van a ser altas, impuestos a renta financiera también.
Depositar mis ahorros en algún instrumento para generar rentabilidades minimas hasta necesitarlos, sin asumir mucho riesgo. Podemos buscar un fondo común de inversion en USD que invierta en bonos LATAM de mas bajo riesgo. O llevar nuestro dinero al exterior e invertir en un ETF de bonos globales o del tesoro de EEUU de bajo riesgo. Vamos a tener nuestra inversion en USD, liquidez alta aunque puede ser costosa si involucra mover fondos en el exterior debido a las comisiones. El riesgo es bajo. Hay que tener en cuenta los impuestos, especialmente por la moneda y el hecho de ser en el extranjero en el segundo caso.
Como se puede apreciar, en estas tensiones entre todos estos (y otros) atributos, hay juegos entre retornos esperados y "primas" (costos) que hay que pagar. Por ejemplo, por operar un instrumento poco liquido, tenemos la "prima de liquidez" que se refiere a los costos extra de por ejemplo, comprar un instrumento mas caro porque no hay vendedores a un precio mas barato. Otro ejemplo es la "prima de inversiones extranjeras", donde aumentan nuestros gastos de movimiento de fondos e impositivos. Incluso hay limitaciones con respecto al capital: algunas inversiones son poco viables si tenemos muy poco o demasiado capital para invertir, ya sea por mínimos requeridos o porque no hay liquidez suficiente en el instrumento que nos interesa.
Los instrumentos mas comunes que debemos aprender
Aca simplemente voy a listar los instrumentos que deberíamos tener en nuestra caja de herramientas de inversión, con un breve comentario de cada uno explicando que usos tiene y de que se trata.
Plazo fijo: rendimientos fijos a plazo conocido. No necesita mucha explicación. Hay que tener mucho cuidado con las tasas nominales vs las tasas reales para ver si convienen o no.
Dolar: refugio de valor por excelencia, pero como el plazo fijo hay veces que conviene y veces que puede ser una mala opción para nuestro perfil.
Cauciones: inversion prácticamente libre de riesgo, como un plazo fijo pero de mas corto plazo. Rara vez las tasas reales son positivas, pero son buenos instrumentos para los que tienen dinero ocioso en la bolsa o para los que quieren apalancarse (invertir con plata prestada) en el corto plazo
Fondos comunes de inversion: dejo un link con introducción. Son instrumentos muy flexibles para inversiones mas pasivas (lo opuesto a inversion activa, en la que debemos estarle encima de manera constante, dia a dia por ej.). Son todo un mundo, ya que al estar compuestos por distintos instrumentos (por ej. acciones, o plazos fijos, etc) cada FCI requiere su propio análisis.
Criptomonedas: activos descentralizados y anónimos que pueden ser útiles para especular o para hacer transacciones por fuera del sistema. También como moneda de cambio o de inversion. Buscar posts sobre CeFi (Centralized finance) y DeFi (Decentralized finance) en el sub, podemos poner nuestras criptos a trabajar en prestamos tipo plazo fijo o en fondos con rendimientos variables. Ejemplos: Bitcoin, Ethereum.
Stablecoins: son criptos que suelen estar atadas de alguna manera u otra al valor del dolar o algún activo mas estable, haciéndolas mas atractivas para perfiles mas conservadores. Igual que las criptos, permiten usarse para cambiar de moneda o inversiones, asi como para hacer transacciones y fondeos. Ejemplos: DAI, USDT.
Acciones (renta variable): nos permite participar en las ganancias de una empresa. Alto riesgo, aunque hay matices dependiendo de la empresa, sector, pais, contexto, etc. Puede ser acciones locales o podemos operar en el exterior directamente y acceder a acciones de todo el mundo.
Bonos (renta fija): son instrumentos con flujos de fondo conocidos. Los riesgos son mayormente de default (escenario de no pago) y de crisis de confianza que pueden hacer bajar los precios (puede ser oportunidad de compra o punto costoso de venta para el tenedor).
CEDEARs: son instrumentos locales en pesos pero que representan acciones del exterior. Nos permite invertir en una gran colección de empresas grandes, mayormente de EEUU pero también de Brazil y las empresas argentinas mas grandes (Mercado Libre y Globant). Tienen ventajas en costos operativos para inversores minoristas en Argentina.
Opciones: son contratos de compra/venta a precios prefijados. Hay infinidad de estrategias, desde lo mas especulativo y de alto riesgo, a cosas muy conservadoras como usarlo como seguro contra la baja de una acción que tenemos en cartera. Por ejemplo, podemos pagar una prima (un costo fijo) por asegurarnos de limitar las perdidas de una acción que tengamos en caso que baje, durante un plazo de tiempo. También nos permite apostar a la baja de una acción! Y apalancarnos, en el sentido de que podemos ganar exposición a mas capital del que tenemos, multiplicando las subas (y las bajas, claro).
ETFs: instrumento que solo se puede operar en el exterior. Como los Fondos Comunes de Inversion, hay de todos los sabores y colores, permitiéndonos invertir de manera diversificada en sectores, países enteros, tendencias de inversion como energias renovables o automatización, grupos de bonos de cierta calidad crediticia, etc.
El rol del broker y el mercado
La mayoría de estos instrumentos se acceden a través de un broker, que es una empresa que nos permite acceso al mercado. Los instrumentos relacionados a crypto se acceden generalmente via exchanges. Para mas información sobre brokers o exchanges, buscar por el sub. En ambos casos, debemos tener presente que comisiones vamos a tener al operar, que instrumentos tiene cada broker, su reputación, atención al cliente, participación en nuevas emisiones y varias cosas mas. Es bastante común tener cuenta comitente (el análogo a una cuenta bancaria, donde en vez de dinero, también podemos tener títulos como acciones, etc) en varios brokers! El mercado en si, no es mas que el medio electrónico donde se intercambian la mayoría de los títulos listados. Este intercambio se hace mediante oferta y demanda, donde tienen prioridad los que quieren comprar a mayor precio y los que quieren vender a menor precio, y luego los que llegan antes en ese orden. Una vez que se matchea el precio de compra, con el precio de venta, se concreta la operación y se intercambian títulos por dinero, determinando así el precio del activo en cuestión. En este mercado, participan todos los inversores, desde un inversor minorista físico buscando timbear unos pesitos o invertir sus ahorros, hasta empresas que emiten deuda o acciones para financiar su operación. Luego tenemos grandes inversores como inversores institucionales, bancos o empresas de seguros que buscan invertir el capital de sus clientes así como provincias y países que buscan financiarse emitiendo bonos.
El perfil del inversor, emociones y disciplina
Ya sabemos entonces que las distintas inversiones van a tener su nivel de riesgo, entre otras limitaciones. El desafío ahora es intentar asegurarnos de que el nivel de riesgo requerido para una inversion, sea adecuado para el inversor. Por qué es importante que el perfil de inversor este en consonancia con la inversion? Porque cuando hay ruido, las emociones nos pueden llevar a romper nuestra estrategia inicial que tan cuidadosamente planeamos. Si no tenemos la disciplina, vamos a hacer estragos. Cabe destacar que esto puede suceder cuando el riesgo de la inversion es mas alto que el que el inversor esta dispuesto a tolerar, asi como en el caso inverso. Esto se puede ilustrar con dos ejemplos:
Compramos CEDEARs de MSFT con el objetivo de sacarnos de encima los pesos y dejarlos en algún lado dolarizado para uso en algunos años, de paso sacando una ganancia. Sin embargo, no nos dimos cuenta que los CEDEARs son instrumentos altamente volátiles, ya que combinan la volatilidad del tipo de cambio, con la volatilidad de la acción subyacente. Un día, el dolar baja abruptamente por alguna medida y al mismo tiempo la empresa presenta balances en EEUU. Vemos que el precio del CEDEAR esta mostrando -10% en la apertura del mercado. A la media hora vemos -15% y temiendo por nuestro capital ,decidimos vender, ya que parece no tener piso. A los 6 meses, el CEDEAR esta 50% arriba del valor al que vendimos y nos queremos morir. Que sucedió? No respetamos la estrategia original. Pero por qué? No necesitábamos esos pesos. Analizamos la empresa y parecia solida. Sin embargo, al momento de ver esa volatilidad diaria, las emociones nos dominaron y vendimos. Esto es una señal de que algo en la inversion original (en este caso el riesgo), no es acorde al perfil del inversor.
Supongamos que somos una persona joven, con buenos prospectos de crecimiento en nuestro laburo y queremos invertir nuestro capital. Como todavia no tenemos muchas obligaciones, nos sobra un buen monto cada mes para invertir. Decidimos ponerlo en plazo fijo todos los meses. Al año, nos damos cuenta que si tuvimos suerte, apenas le ganamos a la inflación. En este caso no vamos a hacer cagadas en el medio de la inversion, pero nos damos cuenta del costo de oportunidad perdido al comparar con haber invertido en instrumentos mas rendidores como acciones. Al evaluar esta situación, decidimos elegir otra estrategia para nuestra próxima inversion.
Para intentar determinar nuestro perfil de inversor podemos utilizar tests online. Si bien nos pueden dar una idea, es esperable que hasta no tener las manos en la masa, no nos demos cuenta de cual es realmente nuestro perfil. Una ultima cuestión a tener en cuenta con respecto al perfil, es que si bien el riesgo es uno de los items mas importantes a descubrir, no es el único. Otro importante por ejemplo, es el plazo. Podemos pensar que estamos a largo plazo, pero si estamos mirando nuestra inversion dia a día, tenemos una disonancia. Otro es el nivel de conocimiento de los instrumentos a operar en la estrategia. Si nos metemos a compravender futuros sin tener mucha idea de la mecánica, aumentamos exponencialmente las chances de que salga todo mal, por mas que el resto de la estrategia este delineada cuidadosamente.
La importancia de la diversificación
Diversificar significa reducir o eliminar riesgos, mediante la combinación de varios instrumentos. Vamos a dar varios ejemplos en vez de entrar en definiciones:
Supongamos que queremos apostar a la recuperación de los cruceros luego de la pandemia del COVID. Una opción es ir y comprar acciones de RCL (Royal Caribbean). Sin embargo, una alternativa menos riesgosa, es comprar varias acciones de cruceros que sean representativas del mercado: RCL (Royal Caribbean), CCL (Carnival Cruises), NCLH (Norwegian Cruises). De esta manera, estamos mitigando el riesgo de una unica empresa.
Supongamos que queremos invertir en acciones de Brazil, porque nos parece que el pais tiene mucho potencial de convertirse en un mercado del primer mundo. En este caso, podríamos comprar las empresas mas representativas de Brazil, como Vale, Banco Bradesco, Petrobras o Banco Itaú, y asi sucesivamente (por ej, 10 empresas). Si bien estaríamos diversificados, hay un instrumento mas apropiado para eso que es un ETF como el EWZ, una pseudo-acción, que esta compuesta por cientos de las empresas mas grandes de Brazil. De esta manera, no solo diversificamos muchísimo mas (prácticamente la perdida es nula si una empresa quiebra), sino que la gestión es mas sencilla al ser un único activo.
En todos los casos estamos reduciendo riesgo a cambio de retornos menos volátiles, y por ende sacrificando situaciones de muy altos retornos pero también eliminando situaciones de grandes perdidas (ej, una empresa quiebra). Un concepto muy importante asociado a la diversificación, es la correlación. La correlación es una medida estadística de que tan similar es el movimiento de una variable con respecto a otra. Va desde -1 que significa correlación perfecta inversa (ej, cuando uno sube en un 5%, el otro baja en 5%), 0 que significa que no hay correlación y 1 que significa correlación perfecta (ej, cuando uno sube 5%, el otro sube 5%). Cuanto mas correlacionados están dos instrumentos, menos diversificación obtenemos al combinarlos y viceversa. Esto quiere decir que si tenemos una cartera con 50% de un instrumento A y 50% de otro instrumento B, el nivel de diversificación real que vamos a tener, va a depender de la correlación entre A y B. Si están perfectamente correlacionados, la diversificación es nula. En cambio, si su correlación es 0 o menor, el beneficio es mucho mayor. Si volvemos a nuestro ejemplo de los cruceros, si bien estamos diversificando el riesgo de una empresa, no estamos diversificando el riesgo del sector (esto es a proposito), donde todas las acciones relacionadas con cruceros tienen alta correlación, ni tampoco estamos diversificando el riesgo del mercado, ya que ninguna empresa esta aislada y todas las acciones dependen entre si: para construir un crucero necesito materiales para fabricarlo, necesito contratar gente, necesito capital y prestamos, necesito que la gente tenga plata y este dispuesta a gastarla en cruceros, y un gran etcétera.
Armando un portfolio (cartera) acorde a nuestros objetivos
Una vez que tenemos nuestras posibles inversiones, vamos a agarrar nuestro capital y decidir como distribuirlo. Nuestra cartera puede tener un mix de inversiones de distintos horizontes, en distintos instrumentos, con distintos niveles de riesgo y porcentajes acordes. Es muy importante tener en cuenta el nivel de riesgo de nuestra cartera en total, viendo los niveles de correlación entre los activos que tenemos. Por ejemplo, es muy común incorporar una parte de nuestra cartera en cash o en renta fija de bajo riesgo, para tener baja correlación con las acciones o correlación inversa en el caso de los bonos. Esto se debe a que cuando las acciones caen, los inversores aversos al riesgo, suelen vender y comprar bonos. Una teoria muy usada para aprender sobre el análisis de portfolios es el modelo CAPM, que no voy a profundizar aca pero les dejo la punta para investigar si quieren darle un enfoque mas cuantitativo a la diversificación de la cartera. Cabe aclarar que es un modelo anticuado (el primer modelo de hecho) pero no es menos util. El armado de portfolios es toda una ciencia y se estudia bajo lo que se llama MPT (Modern Portfolio Theory).
Como evaluar las decisiones de inversion
Repitan conmigo: para evaluar que tan buena o mala fue una inversion tiene tanto o mas peso el proceso de decision al ingresar y al salir de la inversion, que el resultado (retorno) de la misma. Estamos intentando evitar dos escenarios, que son MUY problemáticos para los inversores y tenemos que tratar de identificarlos a toda costa:
Una inversion nos puede salir bien, aunque hayamos hecho todo mal. Esto se suele resumir en el dicho popular "todos somos genios cuando la bolsa esta subiendo".
Una inversion nos puede salir mal, aunque hayamos hecho todo bien. Esto se debe a que en inversiones de riesgo, lo que estamos haciendo es tratando de manejar riesgos y retornos, pero no controlamos cuales de los eventos terminan sucediendo en la practica.
En el primer caso, el problema es que probablemente lleguemos a conclusiones incorrectas, reforzando nuestro esquema de decision erróneo, y en algún momento nos llevemos una sorpresa desagradable. Mientras que en el segundo caso, el problema es que probablemente nos desalentemos y dejemos de invertir aunque íbamos por el camino correcto. Vamos con un ejemplo de cada uno:
"Me gustan las películas de Disney, voy a comprar unas acciones". A la semana, Disney lanza una serie nueva que tiene mucho potencial y la acción sube 10%. Naturalmente, al ver esta ganancia en el corto plazo, nos olvidamos que nos metimos en Disney por cuestiones marketineras en vez de por cuestiones de análisis serio de la empresa, y nos creemos que somos unos capos. "Claro, era obvio que iba a subir". Satisfechos con el resultado, seguimos con nuestra metodologia: "El futuro son los autos eléctricos, yo me mando y compro Tesla, no puede fallar". Al dia siguiente, Elon Musk twittea que van a abandonar las operaciones en China por nuevas tarifas impuestas por el gobierno Chino y la acción cae 20% en un dia. En pánico, vendemos todo y no entendemos que pasó. "El mercado es una timba", gritamos, acompañado de varios insultos, y juramos nunca mas invertir nuestro dinero mientras vamos a la cueva de confianza a pagar un tremendo sobreprecio por el dolar blue.
"Analicé todos los balances recientes de Apple. La empresa tiene números sólidos y grandes proyectos. Las perspectivas de crecimiento, tanto desde los fundamentals como desde el consenso del mercado en los precios (gráficos) son excelentes. Validé mis análisis contra otros análisis de varias fuentes, enriqueciendo mis hipótesis y validando aún mas mis proyecciones. Acordemente, voy a poner una parte importante de mi capital en acciones de AAPL". Al mes, cae un avión en el medio de la asamblea de inversores matando a todos los presentes de la junta directiva, incluido el CEO y a Warren Buffet que pasaba por ahí cerca. La acción colapsa -30% al dia siguiente. Frustrados por semejante baja inesperado, vendemos nuestra posición. "El mercado es una timba", gritamos, acompañado de varios insultos, y juramos nunca mas invertir nuestro dinero mientras vamos a la cueva de confianza a pagar un tremendo sobreprecio por el dolar blue.
Esto no quiere decir que no debemos evaluar una inversion sobre la marcha y post cierre de la misma. Muchas veces podemos aprender cosas útiles. Pero el proceso de aprendizaje tiene que estar atado al proceso de toma de decisiones y de gestión de riesgo, no de intentar predecir eventos aleatorios. Después de todo, la gestión de riesgo es justamente eso: intentar predecir qué eventos aleatorios, fuera de nuestro control, se pueden dar y con que probabilidad, y no si se van a dar o no y cuando.
Recomiendo seguir con este curso para intentar determinar que perfil de inversión va mas de acuerdo con nuestra capacidad, tiempo y objetivos. Una vez que tengamos claro estos principios, el siguiente paso sería familiarizarnos con la mecánica de la operación en el mercado y los distintos instrumentos. Espero que les haya servido y cualquier comentario, duda, cosa me avisan en los comentarios. Mucha suerte en este camino que recién empieza ;)
You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments. It all started with the release of the release of Satoshi Nakamoto's whitepaper however that will probably go over the head of most readers so we recommend the following videos for a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Limited Supply - There will only ever be 21,000,000 bitcoins created and they are issued in a predictable fashion, you can view the inflation schedule here. Once they are all issued Bitcoin will be truly deflationary. The halving countdown can be found here.
Open source - Bitcoin code is fully auditable. You can read the source code yourself here.
Accountable - The public ledger is transparent, all transactions are seen by everyone.
Decentralized - Bitcoin is globally distributed across thousands of nodes with no single point of failure and as such can't be shut down similar to how Bittorrent works. You can even run a node on a Raspberry Pi.
Censorship resistant - No one can prevent you from interacting with the bitcoin network and no one can censor, alter or block transactions that they disagree with, see Operation Chokepoint.
Push system - There are no chargebacks in bitcoin because only the person who owns the address where the bitcoins reside has the authority to move them.
Low fee scaling - On chain transaction fees depend on network demand and how much priority you wish to assign to the transaction. Most wallets calculate on chain fees automatically but you can view current fees here and mempool activity here. On chain fees may rise occasionally due to network demand, however instant micropayments that do not require confirmations are happening via the Lightning Network, a second layer scaling solution currently rolling out on the Bitcoin mainnet.
Borderless - No country can stop it from going in/out, even in areas currently unserved by traditional banking as the ledger is globally distributed.
Portable - Bitcoins are digital so they are easier to move than cash or gold. They can even be transported by simply memorizing a string of words for wallet recovery (while cool this method is generally not recommended due to potential for insecure key generation by inexperienced users. Hardware wallets are the preferred method for new users due to ease of use and additional security).
Bitcoin.org and BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (even just a few dollars worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Bitwage. Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".
Securing your bitcoins
With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
If you prefer to "Be your own bank" and have direct control over your coins without having to use a trusted third party, then you will need to create your own wallet and keep it secure. If you want easy and secure storage without having to learn computer security best practices, then a hardware wallet such as the Trezor, Ledger or ColdCard is recommended. Alternatively there are many software wallet options to choose from here depending on your use case.
If you prefer to let third party "Bitcoin banks" manage your coins, try Gemini but be aware you may not be in control of your private keys in which case you would have to ask permission to access your funds and be exposed to third party risk.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email! 2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
As mentioned above, Bitcoin is decentralized, which by definition means there is no official website or Twitter handle or spokesperson or CEO. However, all money attracts thieves. This combination unfortunately results in scammers running official sounding names or pretending to be an authority on YouTube or social media. Many scammers throughout the years have claimed to be the inventor of Bitcoin. Websites like bitcoin(dot)com and the btc subreddit are active scams. Almost all altcoins (shitcoins) are marketed heavily with big promises but are really just designed to separate you from your bitcoin. So be careful: any resource, including all linked in this document, may in the future turn evil. Don't trust, verify. Also as they say in our community "Not your keys, not your coins".
Where can I spend bitcoins?
Check out spendabit or bitcoin directory for millions of merchant options. Also you can spend bitcoin anywhere visa is accepted with bitcoin debit cards such as the CashApp card. Some other useful site are listed below.
Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out. If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. If you would prefer to keep it simple there are several good options. You can view the global node distribution here.
Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins.
The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
one bitcoin is equal to 100 million satoshis
1,000 per bitcoin
used as default unit in recent Electrum wallet releases
1,000,000 per bitcoin
colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin (μBTC)
100,000,000 per bitcoin
smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $10000 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki. Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval. Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
There is a constant war being fought between goldbugs, like Peter Schiff, and Bitcoin enthusiasts so I decided to make an outline, with links, comparing and contrasting gold and Bitcoin. I made this in November of 2019 (thus the information therein is based on figures from that time) but, being scatter brained, neglected to post this for the Bitcoin community to see. The yardsticks I used to compare the two assets included the following: shipping/transactions costs, storage costs, censorship factor, settlement time, stock to flow, blockchain vs clearing house, validation, etc. I will also touch on Roosevelt's gold confiscation executive order in 1933, transporting gold during the Spanish Civil War in 1936, and the hypothetical cost for Venezuela to repatriate its gold more recently. I will provide a brief summary first then follow that with the outline I made. This information can be used as a tool for the Bitcoin community to combat some of the silly rhetoric coming from goldbugs such as Peter Schiff and James Rickards. I would like to make it clear, however, that I am not against gold and think that it performed its role as money very well in a technologically inferior era, namely Victorian times but I think Bitcoin performs the functions of money better than gold does in the current environment. I have been looking to make a contribution to the Bitcoin community and I hope this is a useful and educational tool for everyone who reads this. Summary: Shipping/transaction costs: 100 ounces of gold could be shipped for 315 dollars; the comparable dollar value in Bitcoin could be sent for 35 dollars using a non-segwit address. Using historical precendent, it would cost an estimated $32,997,989 to transport $1 billion in gold using the 3.3% fee that the Soviets charged the Spaniards in 1936; a $1 billion Bitcoin transaction moved for $690 last year by comparison. Please note that the only historic example we can provide for moving enormous sums of gold was when the government of Spain transported gold to Moscow during the Spanish Civil War in 1936. More information on this topic will be found in the notes section. Storage costs: 100 ounces of gold would require $451 per year to custody while the equivalent value of Bitcoin in dollar terms could be stored for the cost of a Ledger Nano S, $59.99. $1 billion USD value of gold would cost $2,900,000 per year while an Armory set up that is more secure would run you the cost of a laptop, $200-300. Censorship factor: Gold must pass through a 3rd party whenever it is shipped, whether for a transaction or for personal transportation. Gold will typically have to be declared and a customs duty may be imposed when crossing international borders. The key take-away is gatekeepers (customs) can halt movement of gold thus making transactions difficult. $46,000 of gold was seized in India despite the smugglers hiding it in their rectums. Settlement time: Shipping gold based on 100 ounces takes anywhere from 3-10 days while Bitcoin transactions clear in roughly 10 minutes depending on network congestion and fee size. Historic confiscation: Franklin Roosevelt confiscated and debased the paper value of gold in 1933 with Executive Order 6102. Since gold is physical in nature and value dense, it is often stored in custodial vaults like banks and so forth which act as a honeypot for rapacious governments. Stock to flow: Plan B's stock to flow model has become a favorite on twitter. Stock to flow measures the relationship between the total stock of an asset against the amount that is produced in a given year. Currently gold still has the highest value at 62 while Bitcoin sits at 50 in 2nd place. Bitcoin will overtake gold in 2024 after the next halving. Blockchain vs clearing house: gold payments historically passed through a 3rd party (clearinghouse) in order to be validated while Bitcoin transactions can be self validated through the use of a node. Key Takeaway from above- Bitcoin is vastly superior to gold in terms of cost, speed, and censorship resistance. One could theoretically carry around an enormous sum of Bitcoin on a cold card while the equivalent dollar value of gold would require a wheelbarrow...and create an enormous target on the back of the transporter. With the exception of the stock to flow ratio (which will flip in Bitcoin's favor soon), Bitcoin is superior to gold by all metrics covered. Notes: Shipping/transaction costs Gold 100 oz = 155,500. 45 x 7 = $315 to ship 100 oz gold. https://seekingalpha.com/instablog/839735-katchum/2547831-how-much-does-it-cost-to-ship-silver-and-gold https://www.coininvest.com/en/shipping-prices/ 211 tonnes Venezuela; 3.3% of $10.5 billion = 346,478,880 or 32,997,989/billion usd http://blogs.reuters.com/felix-salmon/2011/08/23/how-to-get-12-billion-of-gold-to-venezuela/ (counter party risk; maduro; quotes from article) Bitcoin 18 bitcoin equivalent value; 35 USD with legacy address https://blockexplorer.com/ https://bitcoinfees.info/ 1 billion; $690 dollars https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2019/09/someone-moved-1-billion-in-a-single-bitcoin-transaction/ Storage costs Gold .29% annually; https://sdbullion.com/gold-silver-storage 100 oz – $451/year $1 billion USD value – $2,900,000/year Bitcoin Ledger Nano S - $59.00 (for less bitcoin) https://shop.ledger.com/products/ledger-nano-s/transparent?flow_country=USA&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI3ILV5O-Z5wIVTtbACh1zTAwqEAQYASABEgJ5SPD_BwE Armory - $200-300 cost of laptop for setup https://www.bitcoinarmory.com/ Censorship factor (must pass through 3rd party) Varies by country Gold will typically have to be declared and a customs duty may be imposed Key take-away is gatekeepers (customs) can halt movement of gold thus making transactions difficult $46,000 seized in India https://www.foxnews.com/travel/indian-airport-stops-29-passengers-smuggling-gold-in-their-rectums Settlement time Gold For 100 oz transaction by USPS 3-10 days (must pass through 3rd party) Bitcoin Roughly 10 minutes to be included in next block Historic confiscation-roosevelt 1933 Executive Order 6102 (forced spending, fed could ban cash, go through and get quotes) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_Order_6102 “The stated reason for the order was that hard times had caused "hoarding" of gold, stalling economic growth and making the depression worse” Stock to flow; https://medium.com/@100trillionUSD/modeling-bitcoins-value-with-scarcity-91fa0fc03e25 (explain what it is and use charts in article) Gold; SF of 62 Bitcoin; SF of 25 but will double to 50 after May (and to 100 in four years) Blockchain vs clearing house Transactions can be validated by running a full node vs. third party settlement Validation Gold; https://www.goldismoney2.com/threads/cost-to-assay.6732/ (Read some responses) Bitcoin Cost of electricity to run a full node Breaking down Venezuela conundrum; http://blogs.reuters.com/felix-salmon/2011/08/23/how-to-get-12-billion-of-gold-to-venezuela/ “The last (and only) known case of this kind of quantity of gold being transported across state lines took place almost exactly 75 years ago, in 1936, when the government of Spain removed 560 tons of gold from Madrid to Moscow as the armies of Francisco Franco approached. Most of the gold was exchanged for Russian weaponry, with the Soviet Union keeping 2.1% of the funds in the form of commissions and brokerage, and an additional 1.2% in the form of transport, deposit, melting, and refining expenses.” “Venezuela would need to transport the gold in several trips, traders said, since the high value of gold means it would be impossible to insure a single aircraft carrying 211 tonnes. It could take about 40 shipments to move the gold back to Caracas, traders estimated. “It’s going to be quite a task. Logistically, I’m not sure if the central bank realises the magnitude of the task ahead of them,” said one senior gold banker.” “So maybe Chávez intends to take matters into his own hands, and just sail the booty back to Venezuela on one of his own naval ships. Again, the theft risk is obvious — seamen can be greedy too — and this time there would be no insurance. Chávez is pretty crazy, but I don’t think he’d risk $12 billion that way.” “Which leaves one final alternative. Gold is fungible, and people are actually willing to pay a premium to buy gold which is sitting in the Bank of England’s ultra-secure vaults. So why bother transporting that gold at all? Venezuela could enter into an intercontinental repo transaction, where it sells its gold in the Bank of England to some counterparty, and then promises to buy it all back at a modest discount, on condition that it’s physically delivered to the Venezuelan central bank in Caracas. It would then be up to the counterparty to work out how to get 211 tons of gold to Caracas by a certain date. That gold could be sourced anywhere in the world, and transported in any conceivable manner — being much less predictable and transparent, those shipments would also be much harder to hijack. How much of a discount would a counterparty require to enter into this kind of transaction? Much more than 3.3%, is my guess. And again, it’s not entirely clear who would even be willing to entertain the idea. Glencore, perhaps?” “But here’s one last idea: why doesn’t Chávez crowdsource the problem? He could simply open a gold window at the Banco Central de Venezuela, where anybody at all could deliver standard gold bars. In return, the central bank would transfer to that person an equal number of gold bars in the custody of the Bank of England, plus a modest bounty of say 2% — that’s over $15,000 per 400-ounce bar, at current rates. It would take a little while, but eventually the gold would start trickling in: if you’re willing to pay a constant premium of 2% over the market price for a good, you can be sure that the good in question will ultimately find its way to your door. And the 2% cost of acquiring all that gold would surely be much lower than the cost of insuring and shipping it from England. It would be an elegant market-based solution to an artificial and ideologically-driven problem; I daresay Chávez might even chuckle at the irony of it. He’d just need to watch out for a rise in Andean banditry, as thieves tried to steal the bars on their disparate journeys into Venezuela.”
Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal
Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:
Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and postsper Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625. Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions onYouTube. This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.
Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!
I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale. For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube. We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.
Dragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and ~700 independent Dragonchain nodes. Every transaction is secured to Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Ethereum Classic. Transactions are immediately usable on chain, and the first decentralization is seen within 20 seconds on Dragon Net. Security increases further to public networks ETH, BTC, and ETC within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Smart contracts can be written in any executable language, offering full freedom to existing developers. We invite any developer to watch the demo, play with our SDK’s, review open source code, and to help us move forward. Dragonchain specializes in scalable loyalty & rewards solutions and has built a decentralized social network on chain, with very affordable transaction costs. This experience can be combined with the insights Reddit and the Ethereum community have gained in the past couple of months to roll out the solution at a rapid pace.
Response and PoC
In The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off post, Reddit has asked for a series of demonstrations, requirements, and other considerations. In this section, we will attempt to answer all of these requests.
A live proof of concept showing hundreds of thousands of transactions
On Jan 7, 2020, Dragonchain hosted a 24-hour live demonstration during which a quarter of a billion (250 million+) transactions executed fully on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. This means that every single transaction is secured by, and traceable to these networks. An attack on this system would require a simultaneous attack on all of the Interchained networks. 24 hours in 4 minutes (YouTube): 24 hours in 4 minutes The demonstration was of a single business system, and any user is able to scale this further, by running multiple systems simultaneously. Our goals for the event were to demonstrate a consistent capacity greater than that of Visa over an extended time period. Tooling to reproduce our demo is available here: https://github.com/dragonchain/spirit-bomb
Source code (for on & off-chain components as well tooling used for the PoC). The source code does not have to be shared publicly, but if Reddit decides to use a particular solution it will need to be shared with Reddit at some point.
Dragonchain’s architecture attacks the scalability issue from multiple angles. Dragonchain is a hybrid blockchain platform, wherein every transaction is protected on a business node to the requirements of that business or purpose. A business node may be held completely private or may be exposed or replicated to any level of exposure desired. Every node has its own blockchain and is independently scalable. Dragonchain established Context Based Verification as its consensus model. Every transaction is immediately usable on a trust basis, and in time is provable to an increasing level of decentralized consensus. A transaction will have a level of decentralization to independently owned and deployed Dragonchain nodes (~700 nodes) within seconds, and full decentralization to BTC and ETH within minutes or hours. Level 5 nodes (Interchain nodes) function to secure all transactions to public or otherwise external chains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These nodes scale the system by aggregating multiple blocks into a single Interchain transaction on a cadence. This timing is configurable based upon average fees for each respective chain. For detailed information about Dragonchain’s architecture, and Context Based Verification, please refer to the Dragonchain Architecture Document.
An interesting feature of Dragonchain’s network consensus is its economics and scarcity model. Since Dragon Net nodes (L2-L4) are independent staking nodes, deployment to cloud platforms would allow any of these nodes to scale to take on a large percentage of the verification work. This is great for scalability, but not good for the economy, because there is no scarcity, and pricing would develop a downward spiral and result in fewer verification nodes. For this reason, Dragonchain uses TIME as scarcity. TIME is calculated as the number of Dragons held, multiplied by the number of days held. TIME influences the user’s access to features within the Dragonchain ecosystem. It takes into account both the Dragon balance and length of time each Dragon is held. TIME is staked by users against every verification node and dictates how much of the transaction fees are awarded to each participating node for every block. TIME also dictates the transaction fee itself for the business node. TIME is staked against a business node to set a deterministic transaction fee level (see transaction fee table below in Cost section). This is very interesting in a discussion about scaling because it guarantees independence for business implementation. No matter how much traffic appears on the entire network, a business is guaranteed to not see an increased transaction fee rate.
Dragonchain uses Docker and Kubernetes to allow the use of best practices traditional system scaling. Dragonchain offers managed nodes with an easy to use web based console interface. The user may also deploy a Dragonchain node within their own datacenter or favorite cloud platform. Users have deployed Dragonchain nodes on-prem on Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, MS Azure, and other hosting platforms around the world. Any executable code, anything you can write, can be written into a smart contract. This flexibility is what allows us to say that developers with no blockchain experience can use any code language to access the benefits of blockchain. Customers have used NodeJS, Python, Java, and even BASH shell script to write smart contracts on Dragonchain. With Docker containers, we achieve better separation of concerns, faster deployment, higher reliability, and lower response times. We chose Kubernetes for its self-healing features, ability to run multiple services on one server, and its large and thriving development community. It is resilient, scalable, and automated. OpenFaaS allows us to package smart contracts as Docker images for easy deployment. Contract deployment time is now bounded only by the size of the Docker image being deployed but remains fast even for reasonably large images. We also take advantage of Docker’s flexibility and its ability to support any language that can run on x86 architecture. Any image, public or private, can be run as a smart contract using Dragonchain.
Flexibility in Scaling
Dragonchain’s architecture considers interoperability and integration as key features. From inception, we had a goal to increase adoption via integration with real business use cases and traditional systems. We envision the ability for Reddit, in the future, to be able to integrate alternate content storage platforms or other financial services along with the token.
LBRY - To allow users to deploy content natively to LBRY
MakerDAO to allow users to lend small amounts backed by their Reddit community points.
STORJ/SIA to allow decentralized on chain storage of portions of content. These integrations or any other are relatively easy to integrate on Dragonchain with an Interchain implementation.
Cost estimates (on-chain and off-chain) For the purpose of this proposal, we assume that all transactions are on chain (posts, replies, and votes).
On the Dragonchain network, transaction costs are deterministic/predictable. By staking TIME on the business node (as described above) Reddit can reduce transaction costs to as low as $0.0000025 per transaction. Dragonchain Fees Table
How to run it
Building on Dragonchain is simple and requires no blockchain experience. Spin up a business node (L1) in our managed environment (AWS), run it in your own cloud environment, or on-prem in your own datacenter. Clear documentation will walk you through the steps of spinning up your first Dragonchain Level 1 Business node. Getting started is easy...
Download Dragonchain’s dctl
Input three commands into a terminal
Build an image
More information can be found in our Get started documents.
Dragonchain is an open source hybrid platform. Through Dragon Net, each chain combines the power of a public blockchain (like Ethereum) with the privacy of a private blockchain. Dragonchain organizes its network into five separate levels. A Level 1, or business node, is a totally private blockchain only accessible through the use of public/private keypairs. All business logic, including smart contracts, can be executed on this node directly and added to the chain. After creating a block, the Level 1 business node broadcasts a version stripped of sensitive private data to Dragon Net. Three Level 2 Validating nodes validate the transaction based on guidelines determined from the business. A Level 3 Diversity node checks that the level 2 nodes are from a diverse array of locations. A Level 4 Notary node, hosted by a KYC partner, then signs the validation record received from the Level 3 node. The transaction hash is ledgered to the Level 5 public chain to take advantage of the hash power of massive public networks. Dragon Net can be thought of as a “blockchain of blockchains”, where every level is a complete private blockchain. Because an L1 can send to multiple nodes on a single level, proof of existence is distributed among many places in the network. Eventually, proof of existence reaches level 5 and is published on a public network.
Dragonchain is open source and even though the platform is easy enough for developers to code in any language they are comfortable with, we do not have so large a developer community as Ethereum. We would like to see the Ethereum developer community (and any other communities) become familiar with our SDK’s, our solutions, and our platform, to unlock the full potential of our Ethereum Interchain. Long ago we decided to prioritize both Bitcoin and Ethereum Interchains. We envision an ecosystem that encompasses different projects to give developers the ability to take full advantage of all the opportunities blockchain offers to create decentralized solutions not only for Reddit but for all of our current platforms and systems. We believe that together we will take the adoption of blockchain further. We currently have additional Interchain with Ethereum Classic. We look forward to Interchain with other blockchains in the future. We invite all blockchains projects who believe in decentralization and security to Interchain with Dragonchain.
While we only have 700 nodes compared to 8,000 Ethereum and 10,000 Bitcoin nodes. We harness those 18,000 nodes to scale to extremely high levels of security. See Dragonchain metrics.
Some may consider the centralization of Dragonchain’s business nodes as an issue at first glance, however, the model is by design to protect business data. We do not consider this a drawback as these nodes can make any, none, or all data public. Depending upon the implementation, every subreddit could have control of its own business node, for potential business and enterprise offerings, bringing new alternative revenue streams to Reddit.
Costs and resources
Summary of cost & resource information for both on-chain & off-chain components used in the PoC, as well as cost & resource estimates for further scaling. If your PoC is not on mainnet, make note of any mainnet caveats (such as congestion issues).
Every transaction on the PoC system had a transaction fee of $0.0001 (one-hundredth of a cent USD). At 256MM transactions, the demo cost $25,600. With current operational fees, the same demonstration would cost $640 USD. For the demonstration, to achieve throughput to mimic a worldwide payments network, we modeled several clients in AWS and 4-5 business nodes to handle the traffic. The business nodes were tuned to handle higher throughput by adjusting memory and machine footprint on AWS. This flexibility is valuable to implementing a system such as envisioned by Reddit. Given that Reddit’s daily traffic (posts, replies, and votes) is less than half that of our demo, we would expect that the entire Reddit system could be handled on 2-5 business nodes using right-sized containers on AWS or similar environments. Verification was accomplished on the operational Dragon Net network with over 700 independently owned verification nodes running around the world at no cost to the business other than paid transaction fees.
This PoC should scale to the numbers below with minimal costs (both on & off-chain). There should also be a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users. Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle: *100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points) *25,000 subscriptions *75,000 one-off points burning *100,000 transfers
During Dragonchain’s 24 hour demo, the above required numbers were reached within the first few minutes. Reddit’s total activity is 9000% more than Ethereum’s total transaction level. Even if you do not include votes, it is still 700% more than Ethereum’s current volume. Dragonchain has demonstrated that it can handle 250 million transactions a day, and it’s architecture allows for multiple systems to work at that level simultaneously. In our PoC, we demonstrate double the full capacity of Reddit, and every transaction was proven all the way to Bitcoin and Ethereum. Reddit Scaling on Ethereum
Solutions should not depend on any single third-party provider. We prefer solutions that do not depend on specific entities such as Reddit or another provider, and solutions with no single point of control or failure in off-chain components but recognize there are numerous trade-offs to consider
Dragonchain’s architecture calls for a hybrid approach. Private business nodes hold the sensitive data while the validation and verification of transactions for the business are decentralized within seconds and secured to public blockchains within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Nodes could potentially be controlled by owners of individual subreddits for more organic decentralization.
Billing is currently centralized - there is a path to federation and decentralization of a scaled billing solution.
Operational on-premises capabilities
Operational deployment to any datacenter
Over 700 independent Community Verification Nodes with proof of ownership
Operational Interchain (Interoperable to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, open to more)
Usability Scaling solutions should have a simple end user experience.
Users shouldn't have to maintain any extra state/proofs, regularly monitor activity, keep track of extra keys, or sign anything other than their normal transactions
Dragonchain and its customers have demonstrated extraordinary usability as a feature in many applications, where users do not need to know that the system is backed by a live blockchain. Lyceum is one of these examples, where the progress of academy courses is being tracked, and successful completion of courses is rewarded with certificates on chain. Our @Save_The_Tweet bot is popular on Twitter. When used with one of the following hashtags - #please, #blockchain, #ThankYou, or #eternalize the tweet is saved through Eternal to multiple blockchains. A proof report is available for future reference. Other examples in use are DEN, our decentralized social media platform, and our console, where users can track their node rewards, view their TIME, and operate a business node. Examples:
Transactions complete in a reasonable amount of time (seconds or minutes, not hours or days)
All transactions are immediately usable on chain by the system. A transaction begins the path to decentralization at the conclusion of a 5-second block when it gets distributed across 5 separate community run nodes. Full decentralization occurs within 10 minutes to 2 hours depending on which interchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Ethereum Classic) the transaction hits first. Within approximately 2 hours, the combined hash power of all interchained blockchains secures the transaction.
Free to use for end users (no gas fees, or fixed/minimal fees that Reddit can pay on their behalf)
With transaction pricing as low as $0.0000025 per transaction, it may be considered reasonable for Reddit to cover transaction fees for users. All of Reddit's Transactions on Blockchain (month) Community points can be earned by users and distributed directly to their Reddit account in batch (as per Reddit minting plan), and allow users to withdraw rewards to their Ethereum wallet whenever they wish. Withdrawal fees can be paid by either user or Reddit. This model has been operating inside the Dragonchain system since 2018, and many security and financial compliance features can be optionally added. We feel that this capability greatly enhances user experience because it is seamless to a regular user without cryptocurrency experience, yet flexible to a tech savvy user. With regard to currency or token transactions, these would occur on the Reddit network, verified to BTC and ETH. These transactions would incur the $0.0000025 transaction fee. To estimate this fee we use the monthly active Reddit users statista with a 60% adoption rate and an estimated 10 transactions per month average resulting in an approximate $720 cost across the system. Reddit could feasibly incur all associated internal network charges (mining/minting, transfer, burn) as these are very low and controllable fees. Reddit Internal Token Transaction Fees Reddit Ethereum Token Transaction Fees When we consider further the Ethereum fees that might be incurred, we have a few choices for a solution.
Offload all Ethereum transaction fees (user withdrawals) to interested users as they wish to withdraw tokens for external use or sale.
Cover Ethereum transaction fees by aggregating them on a timed schedule. Users would request withdrawal (from Reddit or individual subreddits), and they would be transacted on the Ethereum network every hour (or some other schedule).
In a combination of the above, customers could cover aggregated fees.
Integrate with alternate Ethereum roll up solutions or other proposals to aggregate minting and distribution transactions onto Ethereum.
Users should be able to view their balances & transactions via a blockchain explorer-style interface
From interfaces for users who have no knowledge of blockchain technology to users who are well versed in blockchain terms such as those present in a typical block explorer, a system powered by Dragonchain has flexibility on how to provide balances and transaction data to users. Transactions can be made viewable in an Eternal Proof Report, which displays raw data along with TIME staking information and traceability all the way to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and every other Interchained network. The report shows fields such as transaction ID, timestamp, block ID, multiple verifications, and Interchain proof. See example here. Node payouts within the Dragonchain console are listed in chronological order and can be further seen in either Dragons or USD. See example here. In our social media platform, Dragon Den, users can see, in real-time, their NRG and MTR balances. See example here. A new influencer app powered by Dragonchain, Raiinmaker, breaks down data into a user friendly interface that shows coin portfolio, redeemed rewards, and social scores per campaign. See example here.
Exiting is fast & simple
Withdrawing funds on Dragonchain’s console requires three clicks, however, withdrawal scenarios with more enhanced security features per Reddit’s discretion are obtainable.
Interoperability Compatibility with third party apps (wallets/contracts/etc) is necessary.
Proven interoperability at scale that surpasses the required specifications. Our entire platform consists of interoperable blockchains connected to each other and traditional systems. APIs are well documented. Third party permissions are possible with a simple smart contract without the end user being aware. No need to learn any specialized proprietary language. Any code base (not subsets) is usable within a Docker container. Interoperable with any blockchain or traditional APIs. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js. Please see our source code and API documentation.
Scaling solutions should be extensible and allow third parties to build on top of it Open source and extensible APIs should be well documented and stable
Third-party permissionless integrations should be possible & straightforward Smart contracts are Docker based, can be written in any language, use full language (not subsets), and can therefore be integrated with any system including traditional system APIs. Simple is better. Learning an uncommon or proprietary language should not be necessary.
Advanced knowledge of mathematics, cryptography, or L2 scaling should not be required. Compatibility with common utilities & toolchains is expected. Dragonchain business nodes and smart contracts leverage Docker to allow the use of literally any language or executable code. No proprietary language is necessary. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js.
Bonus Points: Show us how it works. Do you have an idea for a cool new use case for Community Points? Build it!
Community points could be awarded to Reddit users based upon TIME too, whereas the longer someone is part of a subreddit, the more community points someone naturally gained, even if not actively commenting or sharing new posts. A daily login could be required for these community points to be credited. This grants awards to readers too and incentivizes readers to create an account on Reddit if they browse the website often. This concept could also be leveraged to provide some level of reputation based upon duration and consistency of contribution to a community subreddit.
Dragonchain has already built a social media platform that harnesses community involvement. Dragon Den is a decentralized community built on the Dragonchain blockchain platform. Dragon Den is Dragonchain’s answer to fake news, trolling, and censorship. It incentivizes the creation and evaluation of quality content within communities. It could be described as being a shareholder of a subreddit or Reddit in its entirety. The more your subreddit is thriving, the more rewarding it will be. Den is currently in a public beta and in active development, though the real token economy is not live yet. There are different tokens for various purposes. Two tokens are Lair Ownership Rights (LOR) and Lair Ownership Tokens (LOT). LOT is a non-fungible token for ownership of a specific Lair. LOT will only be created and converted from LOR. Energy (NRG) and Matter (MTR) work jointly. Your MTR determines how much NRG you receive in a 24-hour period. Providing quality content, or evaluating content will earn MTR.
Security. Users have full ownership & control of their points.
All community points awarded based upon any type of activity or gift, are secured and provable to all Interchain networks (currently BTC, ETH, ETC). Users are free to spend and withdraw their points as they please, depending on the features Reddit wants to bring into production.
Balances and transactions cannot be forged, manipulated, or blocked by Reddit or anyone else
Users can withdraw their balance to their ERC20 wallet, directly through Reddit. Reddit can cover the fees on their behalf, or the user covers this with a portion of their balance.
Users should own their points and be able to get on-chain ERC20 tokens without permission from anyone else
Through our console users can withdraw their ERC20 rewards. This can be achieved on Reddit too. Here is a walkthrough of our console, though this does not show the quick withdrawal functionality, a user can withdraw at any time. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNlTMxnfVHw
Points should be recoverable to on-chain ERC20 tokens even if all third-parties involved go offline
If necessary, signed transactions from the Reddit system (e.g. Reddit + Subreddit) can be sent to the Ethereum smart contract for minting.
A public, third-party review attesting to the soundness of the design should be available
To our knowledge, at least two large corporations, including a top 3 accounting firm, have conducted positive reviews. These reviews have never been made public, as Dragonchain did not pay or contract for these studies to be released.
Bonus points Public, third-party implementation review available or in progress
Compatibility with HSMs & hardware wallets
For the purpose of this proposal, all tokenization would be on the Ethereum network using standard token contracts and as such, would be able to leverage all hardware wallet and Ethereum ecosystem services.
Minting/distributing tokens is not performed by Reddit directly
This operation can be automated by smart contract on Ethereum. Subreddits can if desired have a role to play.
One off point burning, as well as recurring, non-interactive point burning (for subreddit memberships) should be possible and scalable
This is possible and scalable with interaction between Dragonchain Reddit system and Ethereum token contract(s).
Fully open-source solutions are strongly preferred
Dragonchain is fully open source (see section on Disney release after conclusion).
Whether it is today, or in the future, we would like to work together to bring secure flexibility to the highest standards. It is our hope to be considered by Ethereum, Reddit, and other integrative solutions so we may further discuss the possibilities of implementation. In our public demonstration, 256 million transactions were handled in our operational network on chain in 24 hours, for the low cost of $25K, which if run today would cost $625. Dragonchain’s interoperable foundation provides the atmosphere necessary to implement a frictionless community points system. Thank you for your consideration of our proposal. We look forward to working with the community to make something great!
Disney Releases Blockchain Platform as Open Source
The team at Disney created the Disney Private Blockchain Platform. The system was a hybrid interoperable blockchain platform for ledgering and smart contract development geared toward solving problems with blockchain adoption and usability. All objective evaluation would consider the team’s output a success. We released a list of use cases that we explored in some capacity at Disney, and our input on blockchain standardization as part of our participation in the W3C Blockchain Community Group. https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-blockchain/2016May/0052.html
In 2016, Roets proposed to release the platform as open source to spread the technology outside of Disney, as others within the W3C group were interested in the solutions that had been created inside of Disney. Following a long process, step by step, the team met requirements for release. Among the requirements, the team had to:
Obtain VP support and approval for the release
Verify ownership of the software to be released
Verify that no proprietary content would be released
Convince the organization that there was a value to the open source community
Convince the organization that there was a value to Disney
Offer the plan for ongoing maintenance of the project outside of Disney
Itemize competing projects
Verify no conflict of interest
Change the project name to not use the name Disney, any Disney character, or any other associated IP - proposed Dragonchain - approved
Obtain legal approval
Approval from corporate, parks, and other business units
Approval from multiple Disney patent groups Copyright holder defined by Disney (Disney Connected and Advanced Technologies)
Trademark searches conducted for the selected name Dragonchain
Obtain IT security approval
Manual review of OSS components conducted
OWASP Dependency and Vulnerability Check Conducted
Obtain technical (software) approval
Offer management, process, and financial plans for the maintenance of the project.
Meet list of items to be addressed before release
Remove all Disney project references and scripts
Create a public distribution list for email communications
Remove Roets’ direct and internal contact information
Create public Slack channel and move from Disney slack channels
Create proper labels for issue tracking
Rename internal private Github repository
Add informative description to Github page
Expand README.md with more specific information
Add information beyond current “Blockchains are Magic”
Add getting started sections and info on cloning/forking the project
Add installation details
Add uninstall process
Add unit, functional, and integration test information
Detail how to contribute and get involved
Describe the git workflow that the project will use
Move to public, non-Disney git repository (Github or Bitbucket)
Obtain Disney Open Source Committee approval for release
On top of meeting the above criteria, as part of the process, the maintainer of the project had to receive the codebase on their own personal email and create accounts for maintenance (e.g. Github) with non-Disney accounts. Given the fact that the project spanned multiple business units, Roets was individually responsible for its ongoing maintenance. Because of this, he proposed in the open source application to create a non-profit organization to hold the IP and maintain the project. This was approved by Disney. The Disney Open Source Committee approved the application known as OSSRELEASE-10, and the code was released on October 2, 2016. Disney decided to not issue a press release. Original OSSRELASE-10 document
To print... or not to print? The effects of lost money and effective death taxes.
So, in the perfect economy, all goods would be distributed to every person according to their needs, and all people would have access to resources. However, there is a choice gradient, especially for simple wants, and that is why money, pricing, and markets exist. There is no socialist replacement that encapsulates a weighting of extreme want, vs need. For example, consider the following choice of life for life. Person aged 79. Has heart disease. Needs a new heart, will probably die in 3 years without a new heart. REALLY REALLY wants to live. Person aged 17. Has heart disease. Needs a new heart, will die in 2 months without a new heart. Suffers from depression and is suicidal. Now, who needs the heart more? They are both humans, and both of their lives are important. They *SHOULD* both be saved. But, without artificial hearts, we need to make a choice, and if they both had equal resources, then they could devote their resources towards what was meaningful to them. Now in a society that only cares about absolute life lived, it is a no brainer to sacrifice the old to save the young, despite the older person having more wealth, and caring more about life, and having less of a need for the transplant. But in our capitalist society, the call will be made to save the one who spends more money. And this is the tyranny of capitalism. But what about the choice of a woman who wants to homeschool her child vs a man who wants to buy a new car? This is a different choice, and is a choice of wants. Again, markets currently make this choice. Circumstances are everything, and need vs want is really not clear cut. For example, what if the car is needed to provide resources for a family? Or what if the homeschooling needs to be done because the child's life is at risk? These complicate the difference between need and want and turn clear cut decisions into aggregate inputs of demand. Which comes down to markets, pricing, money... and a useful discussion about whether the printing of new money is beneficial or harmful to a society in terms of socialist goals of having everyone fed clothed, and well off. There are two schools of thought in this. Keynesian and Austrian economics. The Keynesian economic system is the economic system that drives modern capitalism. Under Keynesian theory, the goal is to devalue money at a slow, steady rate. This devaluing of money makes holding money akin to playing with a hot potato. People are penalized for saving, and they are encouraged to take on debt and over leverage themselves to acquire material possessions. This drives the rampant materialism seen so often in capitalist countries, and drives the valuation of material wealth over human life. People are driven to consume, and thus consumer culture arises as a function of devaluing money. The end game of Keynesian economics can be seen in hyper inflation, where the prices of all goods soar above the ability of the people to buy, and wages do not rise to meet the needs of the people. The alternative is Austrian economics. Under the Austrian economic system, no new money is printed. The money supply is set in stone. When money is lost, it is lost forever, and there is slightly less money circulating in the system. As a consequence, the prices of all goods fall slightly over time to accommodate the lost value, and the appreciation of the base currency. This means that the everyday individual has an effective constant rise to their wages and standard of living if their wage does not change. If you want a very deep dive into Austrian economics, check here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_School Austrian economists tend to be anarchocapitalist in their opinions, and nowhere is this more readily seen than in the bitcoin sphere. However, the implications of a society where no money is printed is extreme. Firstly, minimum wage would never have to be increased. Instead, employers would be fighting tooth and nail to see the minimum wage decrease. Consider a real world example. In 2010, the price of 1 bitcoin was $31.00. Say that congress had ordered that the minimum wage was to be 1 bitcoin. That same value today is $ 11,352. Now, this is obviously extreme, but it illustrates a powerful trend that would empower the working class over time, and dis-empower employers. I wish I had a better example where there was less rampant speculation than bitcoin, but other examples do not exist. Bitcoin is the longest running monetary system in modern times that is backed by a finite resource. Fiat currencies have gone off the gold standard. This of course does not solve the other fundamental problems of capitalism. But it is a step ahead of the fiat system that dominates the capitalist world, and I believe a system where money was not printed would empower the workers and everyday people of the world.
So I'm looking through my old yearbooks, and I'm realizing that I missed out on a crucial part of my life: during high school, I was supposed to have a punk phase. I can't believe I missed it! It seemed like everyone was rocking their unruly hair, their unkempt clothes, and their general disaffection towards life. Man, Green Day released new records, and there was an unrelenting hatred for all types of authority figures... Wait, this is just a slab of concrete with newspaper articles from 2020 stapled to it, isn't it. Regardless, the universe is telling me it's time for me to reclaim my lost childhood experiences; to go back to a better time. Unfortunately, latent legal issues surrounding my controversial "BONG HiTS 4 JESUS" sign prevent me from going within 500 feet of any type of school, so winning the basketball championship and visiting the aquarium are right out. But I can still be the moodiest, edgiest, darkest person on the planet, and now that I've beaten Shadow the Hedgehog all the way through and went to Hot Topic, it's time to build a commander deck that's truly me. Presenting: RAMSESO V E R D A R K!
Ramses is the bad boy your mother would never let take you to IHOP. Not that he'd care; his business is killing, and he's efficient at it too, costing the least out of any commander I've ever written about. You want to sit around and drink tea with your little enchanted princess friends? Ramses Overdark is here to tell you how the real world works. Nothing personnel, kid.
Commander For You
Like a TI-83 Silver Edition, Ramses is a stone-cold calculating problem solver, but he only gets that way with some preparation. See, killing is a business, Ramses' business, and the one thing every business needs is synergy. So call me Nathan Fielder, because I'm going to unveil the plan that will keep this enterprise running smoothly:
Procure the payment.
Keep your friends close.
Keep your enemies closer.
Go to work.
As a teenager, I procrastinated from my task of being edgy by protesting government-backed financial institutions with the Bitcoin community, and one thing you learn there very quickly is that assassination ain't cheap. The first and most obvious barrier to breaking 18 U.S. Code § 1117 is his six mana casting cost, and unlike Gabriel, Ramses demands something a little more tangible than a green thumb to appease him. We're going to use the usual fare: rings, trinkets, stones, lockets, relics... archives... spheres? With you as an investor, Ramses' business (which is killing) will make a killing, letting us take full advantage of Revel in Riches as both a ramp tool and backup win condition. Ramses will also often require additional gas to keep going, whether it be finding a steady stream of enchantments to throw onto enemies, or to finding ways to close out games.
And don't forget about the artifacts that sacrifice themselves for cards: In a pinch, you can throw Curator's Ward onto them instead of Ramses.
Enchantment payoffs are few and far between in Dimir, so we're keeping this build a bit creature-light; but the ones we take with are absolutely vital for our success. While Ramses is no Cleopatra, he's still managed to form relationships with some important Greek allies:
Hateful Eidolon is another great draw engine. You're going to be enchanting enemy creatures constantly, so it'll be a steady stream of card advantage.
Protean Thaumaturge can transform into copies of anything on the board, and since you're usually targeting huge threats, he's straight value.
If you prefer just taking creatures instead of becoming them, Rootwater Matriarch is the mother everyone wants to follow, as she takes control of enemy enchanted creatures.
Man, she's way cooler than my mom. Incidentally, these control changing effects can go away, so lets include a sacrifice outlet, like Blasting Station.
Nighthowler is both the name of my new punk band and a decent Bestow creature. Cast it as a creature directly, or use it to build up Ramses' hit-list first.
Blightcaster lets you snipe less relevant creatures while you go for the big ones. I like saying "pew!" when I ping things. Please, take me seriously.
Grim Guardian is an Aristocrats-style payoff for enchantments, which is exactly the sort of talent Ramses' agents should be recruiting.
Rootwater Shaman gives your enchantments flash, making your targets subtle and you s n e a k y. Pretty sus, bro.
Agent of Erebos is repeatable graveyard exile, which isn't necessarily worth a slot but it pisses off Sandy, my Muldrotha-playing ex-wife.
Our deck only runs sixteen creatures, and while being a lone-wolf is edgy, it's not the type of edge I want to be. I feel like I'm a Halloween bobbing apple -- razor edgy; the type of edge that speaks to people, in the very depths of their soul, and causes them to rebel against the man. In the end, I will be so edgy that even those rotten adults will realize I'm right. Enchant opposing creatures with reanimation-on-death enchantments:
Once opposing creatures are enchanted with one of these Auras, they become juicy targets for Ramses, as killing them will put them into play under your control. Unfortunately, six isn't a critical mass for Ramses; to ensure that Ramses' business isn't killed by a lack of clientele, let's use some recursive enchantments.
Remember Dragon Fangs from the last article? Dragon Shadow and Dragon Wings come back to haunt your opponents, auto-enchanting beefy boys at your discretion to give Ramses a target.
Echoing Fallen Angel from Ramses' set League of Legends, Fallen Ideal is a recursive enchantment that's also a sacrifice outlet.
The "Most 2020 Mood Award" goes to Despondency, which lowers a creature's power and keeps comin' back, again and again.
Screams from Within is unique in that it will auto-attach after death instead of coming back to your hand. Be aware that if you've got no enemy targets, it's gonna end up on Ramses.
Slow Motion's Pendrell-type effect might be enough to save you a Ramses activation if your opponent doesn't care enough to pay the toll.
Rounding out the auras, we've got a few utility spells we can play for neat effects:
Ramses' weapon of choice is obviously the Doom Blade, which he'll cast for you if his target is enchanted with Chime of Night.
If you prefer opponents to discard cards instead, Dying Wail's got you covered.
Your opponents will be at world's end when you exile their big threats off the top of their deck with Dead Man's Chest. This is the type of luxury even Gonti's jealous of!
And here's some spicy tech for you: Ensoul Artifact lets Ramses remove an artifact with his ability.
A lot of creatures are going to end up dead, which makes Rise of the Dark Realms a great end-game finisher. But that's boring. Are you ready to learn Ramses' true dark secret? Because here's where I blow your mind.
...lets you sacrifice Iridescent Drake to Blasting Station which...
...deals 1 damage and triggers the enchantment which means...
..Iridescent Drake goes onto the battlefield, returning...
This combo will make you feel like Joker, because your opponents will never see it coming. You've got some redundancy in the deck in case things don't pan out: use Fallen Ideal as your sacrifice outlet and win condition to swing with an evasive infinity/infinity attacker, or deal damage using Grim Guardian's Constellation trigger. Should Iridescent Drake be interacted with (which is illegal, by the way), use Ill Gotten Gains to get your combo pieces back to hand and recur some protective counterspells. I'm not a punk, I'm a goddamn dragon genius. Finally, the deck is truly me!
In conclusion, the Ramses Overdark deck for the Commander format is a fun and powerful budget deck for you to try. I hope you enjoyed reading my paper as much as I enjoyed writing- ...Buh? Oh. I guess I reverted to hastily written high school paper writing. Is that really what I sounded like? You know, people say you never really realize what you have until it's gone. It's easy to look to memories of better days and feel that melancholy drop in your stomach. It's natural to feel wistful for a time past when rain drips down the window. But the truth is also that you don't really realize what you don't have until you obtain it. Our experiences may be painful now, but that's no reason to give up hope. You can get over darkness. Look forward instead of back, because in that future lies a wiser you.
Why Osana takes so long? (Programmer's point of view on current situation)
I decided to write a comment about «Why Osana takes so long?» somewhere and what can be done to shorten this time. It turned into a long essay. Here's TL;DR of it:
The cost of never paying down this technical debt is clear; eventually the cost to deliver functionality will become so slow that it is easy for a well-designed competitive software product to overtake the badly-designed software in terms of features. In my experience, badly designed software can also lead to a more stressed engineering workforce, in turn leading higher staff churn (which in turn affects costs and productivity when delivering features). Additionally, due to the complexity in a given codebase, the ability to accurately estimate work will also disappear. Junade Ali, Mastering PHP Design Patterns (2016)
Longer version: I am not sure if people here wanted an explanation from a real developer who works with C and with relatively large projects, but I am going to do it nonetheless. I am not much interested in Yandere Simulator nor in this genre in general, but this particular development has a lot to learn from for any fellow programmers and software engineers to ensure that they'll never end up in Alex's situation, especially considering that he is definitely not the first one to got himself knee-deep in the development hell (do you remember Star Citizen?) and he is definitely not the last one. On the one hand, people see that Alex works incredibly slowly, equivalent of, like, one hour per day, comparing it with, say, Papers, Please, the game that was developed in nine months from start to finish by one guy. On the other hand, Alex himself most likely thinks that he works until complete exhaustion each day. In fact, I highly suspect that both those sentences are correct! Because of the mistakes made during early development stages, which are highly unlikely to be fixed due to the pressure put on the developer right now and due to his overall approach to coding, cost to add any relatively large feature (e.g. Osana) can be pretty much comparable to the cost of creating a fan game from start to finish. Trust me, I've seen his leaked source code (don't tell anybody about that) and I know what I am talking about. The largest problem in Yandere Simulator right now is its super slow development. So, without further ado, let's talk about how «implementing the low hanging fruit» crippled the development and, more importantly, what would have been an ideal course of action from my point of view to get out. I'll try to explain things in the easiest terms possible.
else if's and lack any sort of refactoring in general
Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing left to take away. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
This is why refactoring — activity of rewriting your old code so it does the same thing, but does it quicker, in a more generic way, in less lines or simpler — is so powerful. In my experience, you can only keep one module/class/whatever in your brain if it does not exceed ~1000 lines, maybe ~1500. Splitting 17000-line-long class into smaller classes probably won't improve performance at all, but it will make working with parts of this class way easier. Is it too late now to start refactoring? Of course NO: better late than never.
If you think that you wrote this code, so you'll always easily remember it, I have some bad news for you: you won't. In my experience, one week and that's it. That's why comments are so crucial. It is not necessary to put a ton of comments everywhere, but just a general idea will help you out in the future. Even if you think that It Just Works™ and you'll never ever need to fix it. Time spent to write and debug one line of code almost always exceeds time to write one comment in large-scale projects. Moreover, the best code is the code that is self-evident. In the example above, what the hell does (float) 6 mean? Why not wrap it around into the constant with a good, self-descriptive name? Again, it won't affect performance, since C# compiler is smart enough to silently remove this constant from the real code and place its value into the method invocation directly. Such constants are here for you. I rewrote my code above a little bit to illustrate this. With those comments, you don't have to remember your code at all, since its functionality is outlined in two tiny lines of comments above it. Moreover, even a person with zero knowledge in programming will figure out the purpose of this code. It took me less than half a minute to write those comments, but it'll probably save me quite a lot of time of figuring out «what was I thinking back then» one day. Is it too late now to start adding comments? Again, of course NO. Don't be lazy and redirect all your typing from «debunk» page (which pretty much does the opposite of debunking, but who am I to judge you here?) into some useful comments.
This is often neglected, but consider the following. You wrote some code, you ran your game, you saw a new bug. Was it introduced right now? Is it a problem in your older code which has shown up just because you have never actually used it until now? Where should you search for it? You have no idea, and you have one painful debugging session ahead. Just imagine how easier it would be if you've had some routines which automatically execute after each build and check that environment is still sane and nothing broke on a fundamental level. This is called unit testing, and yes, unit tests won't be able to catch all your bugs, but even getting 20% of bugs identified at the earlier stage is a huge boon to development speed. Is it too late now to start adding unit tests? Kinda YES and NO at the same time. Unit testing works best if it covers the majority of project's code. On the other side, a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. If you decide to start refactoring your code, writing a unit test before refactoring will help you to prove to yourself that you have not broken anything without the need of running the game at all.
This is basically pretty self-explanatory. You set this thing once, you forget about it. Static code analyzer is another «free estate» to speed up the development process by finding tiny little errors, mostly silly typos (do you think that you are good enough in finding them? Well, good luck catching x << 4; in place of x <<= 4; buried deep in C code by eye!). Again, this is not a silver bullet, it is another tool which will help you out with debugging a little bit along with the debugger, unit tests and other things. You need every little bit of help here. Is it too late now to hook up static code analyzer? Obviously NO.
Say, you want to build Osana, but then you decided to implement some feature, e.g. Snap Mode. By doing this you have maybe made your game a little bit better, but what you have just essentially done is complicated your life, because now you should also write Osana code for Snap Mode. The way game architecture is done right now, easter eggs code is deeply interleaved with game logic, which leads to code «spaghettifying», which in turn slows down the addition of new features, because one has to consider how this feature would work alongside each and every old feature and easter egg. Even if it is just gazing over one line per easter egg, it adds up to the mess, slowly but surely. A lot of people mention that developer should have been doing it in object-oritented way. However, there is no silver bullet in programming. It does not matter that much if you are doing it object-oriented way or usual procedural way; you can theoretically write, say, AI routines on functional (e.g. LISP)) or even logical language if you are brave enough (e.g. Prolog). You can even invent your own tiny programming language! The only thing that matters is code quality and avoiding the so-called shotgun surgery situation, which plagues Yandere Simulator from top to bottom right now. Is there a way of adding a new feature without interfering with your older code (e.g. by creating a child class which will encapsulate all the things you need, for example)? Go for it, this feature is basically «free» for you. Otherwise you'd better think twice before doing this, because you are going into the «technical debt» territory, borrowing your time from the future by saying «I'll maybe optimize it later» and «a thousand more lines probably won't slow me down in the future that much, right?». Technical debt will incur interest on its own that you'll have to pay. Basically, the entire situation around Osana right now is just a huge tale about how just «interest» incurred by technical debt can control the entire project, like the tail wiggling the dog. I won't elaborate here further, since it'll take me an even larger post to fully describe what's wrong about Yandere Simulator's code architecture. Is it too late to rebuild code architecture? Sadly, YES, although it should be possible to split Student class into descendants by using hooks for individual students. However, code architecture can be improved by a vast margin if you start removing easter eggs and features like Snap Mode that currently bloat Yandere Simulator. I know it is going to be painful, but it is the only way to improve code quality here and now. This will simplify the code, and this will make it easier for you to add the «real» features, like Osana or whatever you'd like to accomplish. If you'll ever want them back, you can track them down in Git history and re-implement them one by one, hopefully without performing the shotgun surgery this time.
Again, I won't be talking about the performance, since you can debug your game on 20 FPS as well as on 60 FPS, but this is a very different story. Yandere Simulator is huge. Once you fixed a bug, you want to test it, right? And your workflow right now probably looks like this:
Fix the code (unavoidable time loss)
Rebuild the project (can take a loooong time)
Load your game (can take a loooong time)
Test it (unavoidable time loss, unless another bug has popped up via unit testing, code analyzer etc.)
And you can fix it. For instance, I know that Yandere Simulator makes all the students' photos during loading. Why should that be done there? Why not either move it to project building stage by adding build hook so Unity does that for you during full project rebuild, or, even better, why not disable it completely or replace with «PLACEHOLDER» text for debug builds? Each second spent watching the loading screen will be rightfully interpreted as «son is not coding» by the community. Is it too late to reduce loading times? Hell NO.
Or any other continuous integration tool. «Rebuild a project» can take a long time too, and what can we do about that? Let me give you an idea. Buy a new PC. Get a 32-core Threadripper, 32 GB of fastest RAM you can afford and a cool motherboard which would support all of that (of course, Ryzen/i5/Celeron/i386/Raspberry Pi is fine too, but the faster, the better). The rest is not necessary, e.g. a barely functional second hand video card burned out by bitcoin mining is fine. You set up another PC in your room. You connect it to your network. You set up ramdisk to speed things up even more. You properly set up Jenkins) on this PC. From now on, Jenkins cares about the rest: tracking your Git repository, (re)building process, large and time-consuming unit tests, invoking static code analyzer, profiling, generating reports and whatever else you can and want to hook up. More importantly, you can fix another bug while Jenkins is rebuilding the project for the previous one et cetera. In general, continuous integration is a great technology to quickly track down errors that were introduced in previous versions, attempting to avoid those kinds of bug hunting sessions. I am highly unsure if continuous integration is needed for 10000-20000 source lines long projects, but things can be different as soon as we step into the 100k+ territory, and Yandere Simulator by now has approximately 150k+ source lines of code. I think that probably continuous integration might be well worth it for Yandere Simulator. Is it too late to add continuous integration?NO, albeit it is going to take some time and skills to set up.
Stop caring about the criticism
Stop comparing Alex to Scott Cawton. IMO Alex is very similar to the person known as SgtMarkIV, the developer of Brutal Doom, who is also a notorious edgelord who, for example, also once told somebody to kill himself, just like… However, being a horrible person, SgtMarkIV does his job. He simply does not care much about public opinion. That's the difference.
The value of the first bitcoin transactions were negotiated by individuals on the bitcoin forum with one notable transaction of 10,000 BTC used to indirectly purchase two pizzas delivered by Papa John's. This was the only major security flaw found and exploited in bitcoin's history. Based on bitcoin's open source code, other cryptocurrencies started to emerge. On June 13th, 2011 the first ... Wissenswertes über Bitcoins Unser Bitcoin Chart zeigt Ihnen den aktuellen Bitcoin Kurs in Euro (Kürzel: BTC und XBT) sowie die Bitcoin Kursentwicklung (Bitcoincharts).Wenn Sie Bitcoins kaufen möchten, können Sie sich hier anmelden.In unseren Bitcoin.de FAQs und in unserem Tutorial "Mein erster Bitcoin" erfahren Sie, wie Sie Bitcoins verkaufen oder kaufen können. Wikimedia Deutschland e. V. Über uns. Stellenangebote. Impressum & Kontakt. Mitwirken. Mitglied werden. Jetzt spenden. Mittelverwendung. Vereinskanäle. Unser Blog Bitcoin can also be a store of value, some have said it is a "swiss bank account in your pocket". Stored Bitcoins: Cannot be printed or debased. Only 21 million bitcoins will ever exist. Have no storage costs. They take up no physical space regardless of amount. Are easy to protect and hide. Can be stored encrypted on a hard disk or paper backup. Are in your direct possession with no ... Bitcoin mining is a transaction record process with bitcoins to blockchain – the public database of all the operations with Bitcoin, which is responsible for the transaction confirmation. Network nodes use blockchain to differ the real transactions from the attempt to spend the same facilities twice. The main mining objective is reaching a consensus between network nodes on which ...
Do We Need A Tokenized Wikipedia? with David Liebowitz of Everipedia
This is NOT a sponsored interview. 1:08 Why do we need Everipedia, when we already have Wikipedia? 2:47 How did Everipedia ‘Fork’ Wikipedia and how did it mo... Back in 2013, an anonymous figure posted on the r/Bitcoin subreddit claiming to be a time traveller from the year 2025. He made a series of predictions for the price of Bitcoin in future years ... బిట్ కాయిన్ గురించి పూర్తివివరాలు ఈ వీడియో చూసి తెలుసుకోండి ... Wikipedia has an entire page dedicated to Bitcoin, along with additional resources to help answer this question. See my recommended resource for the best in Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency education ... Short Bitcoin at $447.49 May 25 ,2016 Price goes up 45x in 19 months.to $20,000 Dec 17,2017 http://HEX.win Claim free HEX tokens! Get rich in 2020! The crypt...